Tousen Louvèti

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Tousen Louvèti
20 goud
Eta sivil
Dat nesans:20 me 1743
Lye nesans:Cap-Français
Peyi nesans:Ayiti
dat lanmò :7 avril 1803
Fort de Joux (Frans)
Nasyonalite : ayisyen
Kèk not
Liberatè peyi Ayiti, li mennen peyi a nan endepandans li nan lane 1804.

Gade kouman pou ou konplete biyografi sa : biyografi

François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture, rele Tousen Louvèti (1743 - 7 avril 1803) se te yon militè ayisyen ki mouri an frans 7 avril 1803 nan Fo Dejou, nan rejyon montay ki rele Jira. Liberatè peyi Ayiti, li mennen peyi Ayiti a nan endepandans li nan lane 1804.

Biyografi[edite | modifye sous]

Istwa[edite | modifye sous]

Zèv[edite | modifye sous]

  • Toussaint Louverture, Mémoires du général Toussaint Louverture, écrits par lui-même, pa Toussaint Louverture, Joseph Saint-Rémy, 1853 (teks online).
  • Toussaint Louverture, Mémoires du général Toussaint Louverture, écrits par lui-même, reedisyon kritik konprenan edisyon orijinal 1853 epi retranscripsyon maniskri orijinal pa Toussaint Louverture, prefas ak not pa Jacques de Cauna, edisyon La Girandole, 2009, 280 paj.

Referans[edite | modifye sous]

Kilti[edite | modifye sous]

  • Yon pwoet angle, William Wordsworth te pibliye sonè li "To Toussaint L'Ouverture" an janvye 1803.
  • Alphonse de Lamartine, yon pwoet selèb franse ak politisyen 19e syèk, te ekri yon pyès teyat anlè Toussaint avèk tit Toussaint Louverture: un poeme dramatique en cinq actes (1850)
  • An 1936, yon istoryen trinidadyen, C. L. R. James, ekri yon pyès teyat avèk tit Toussaint Louverture (later revised and retitled The Black Jacobins), which was performed at the Westminster Theatre in London and starred actors including Paul Robeson (in the title role), Robert Adams ak Orlando Martins.[1]
  • An 1938 C. L. R. James te ekri tou : The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution. This book is considered a seminal work on Louverture and the revolution.
  • In 1938, American artist Jacob Lawrence created a series of paintings about the life of Toussaint Louverture, which he later adapted into a series of prints.
  • The American film Lydia Bailey (1952, based on a novel by Kenneth Roberts and directed by Jean Negulesco) is set during the Haitian Revolution. Toussaint is portrayed by the actor Ken Renard.[2]
  • In Frank Webb's novel, The Garies and their Friends, Toussaint's portrait is a source of inspiration for the real estate tycoon Mr. Walters.
  • 1971 albm 'Santana (III)' features a song (almost an instrumental; lyrics are minimal) titled "Toussaint L'Overture". There is a live instrumental version on the 1998 CD re-issue of Abraxas by Santana.
  • 1995-2004, Madison Smartt Bell te piblye yon triloji daprè revolisyon ayisyen, avèk Toussaint Louverture yon pèsonalite. All Souls' Rising (1995) was shortlisted for both the PEN/Faulkner ak National Book awards. Master of the Crossroads (2000) ak The Stone That the Builder Refused (2004) completed the triloji.
  • Bell piblye tou Freedom's Gate: A Brief Life of Toussaint L'Ouverture (2007)
  • Aktè Danny Glover, an jen 2007, te vle reyalize yon fim anlè Toussaint.

Lòt referans[edite | modifye sous]

  • Madison Smartt Bell. "Toussaint Louverture: A Biography" (New York: Pantheon, 2007).
  • David Brion Davis. "He changed the New World" Review of M.S. Bell's "Toussaint Louverture: A Biography", The New York Review of Books, May 31, 2007, pp. 54-58.
  • Laurent Dubois and John D. Garrigus. Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804: A Brief History with Documents (2006)
  • Junius P. Rodriguez, ed. Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2006.
  • Graham Gendall Norton - Toussaint Louverture, in History Today, April 2003.
  • Arthur L. Stinchcombe. Sugar Island Slavery in the Age of Enlightenment: The Political Economy of the Caribbean World (1995).
  • Ian Thomson. 'Bonjour Blanc: A Journey Through Haiti' (London, 1992). A colourful, picaresque, historically- and politically-engaged travelogue; regular asides on Louverture's career.
  • Martin Ros - The Night of Fire: The Black Napoleon and the Battle for Haiti (1991).
  • DuPuy, Alex. Haiti in the World Economy: Class, Race, and Underdevelopment since 1700 (1989).
  • Alfred N. Hunt. Haiti's Influence on Antebellum America: Slumbering Volcano in the Caribbean (1988).
  • Aimé Cesaire - Toussaint Louverture (Paris, 1981). Written by a prominent French thinker, this book is well written, well argued, and well researched.
  • Robert Heinl and Nancy Heinl - Written in Blood: The story of the Haitian people, 1492-1971 (1978). A bit awkward, but studded with quotations from original sources.
  • Thomas Ott - The Haitian Revolution: 1789-1804 (1973). Brief, but well-researched.
  • George F. Tyson, ed. - Great Lives Considered: Toussaint L'Ouverture (1973). A compilation, includes some of Toussaint's writings.
  • Ralph Korngold - Citizen Toussaint (1944, reissued 1979).
  • J. R. Beard - The Life of Toussaint L'Ouverture: The Negro Patriot of Hayti (1853). Still in print. A pro-Toussaint history written by an Englishman. ISBN 1-58742-010-4
  • J. R. Beard - Toussaint L'Ouverture: A Biography and Autobiography (1863). Out of print, but published online. Consists of the earlier "Life", supplemented by an autobiography of Toussaint written by himself.
  • Victor Schoelcher - Vie de Toussaint-Louverture (1889). A sympathetic biography by a French abolitionist, with good scholarship (for the time), and generous quotation from original sources, but entertaining and readable nonetheless. Important as a source for many other biographers (e.g. C.L.R. James).
  • F. J. Pamphile de Lacroix - La révolution d'Haïti (1819, reprinted 1995). Memoirs of one of the French generals involved in fighting Toussaint. Surprisingly, he esteemed his rival and wrote a long, well-documented, and generally highly regarded history of the conflict.
  • Toussaint L'Ouverture - The Haitian Revolution (New York: Verso, 2008). A collection of L'Ouverture's writings and speeches, with an introduction by Jean-Bertrand Aristide. ISBN 1-84467-261-1

Gade tou[edite | modifye sous]

Referans[edite | modifye sous]

  1. McLemee, Scott. "C.L.R. James: A Biographical Introduction." American Visions, April/May 1996.
  2. Lydia Bailey (1952)

Lyen deyò[edite | modifye sous]