|Dat nesans:20 me 1743|
|dat lanmò :7 avril 1803
Fort de Joux (Frans)
|Nasyonalite : ayisyen|
Liberatè peyi Ayiti, li mennen peyi a nan endepandans li nan lane 1804.
Gade kouman pou ou konplete biyografi sa : biyografi
François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture, rele Tousen Louvèti (1743 - 7 avril 1803) se te yon militè ayisyen ki mouri an frans 7 avril 1803 nan Fo Dejou, nan rejyon montay ki rele Jira. Liberatè peyi Ayiti, li mennen peyi Ayiti a nan endepandans li nan lane 1804.
Biyografi[edite | modifye sous]
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Referans[edite | modifye sous]
Kilti[edite | modifye sous]
- English poet William Wordsworth published his sonnet "To Toussaint L'Ouverture" in January 1803.
- Alphonse de Lamartine, a preeminent French poet and statesman of the early 19th century, wrote a verse play about Toussaint entitled Toussaint Louverture: un poeme dramatique en cinq actes (1850)
- In 1936, Trinidadian historian C. L. R. James wrote a play entitled Toussaint Louverture (later revised and retitled The Black Jacobins), which was performed at the Westminster Theatre in London and starred actors including Paul Robeson (in the title role), Robert Adams and Orlando Martins.
- In 1938 CLR James also wrote: The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution. This book is considered a seminal work on Louverture and the revolution.
- In 1938, American artist Jacob Lawrence created a series of paintings about the life of Toussaint Louverture, which he later adapted into a series of prints.
- The American film Lydia Bailey (1952, based on a novel by Kenneth Roberts and directed by Jean Negulesco) is set during the Haitian Revolution. Toussaint is portrayed by the actor Ken Renard.
- In Frank Webb's novel, The Garies and their Friends, Toussaint's portrait is a source of inspiration for the real estate tycoon Mr. Walters.
- 1971 album 'Santana (III)' features a song (almost an instrumental; lyrics are minimal) titled "Toussaint L'Overture". There is a live instrumental version on the 1998 CD re-issue of Abraxas by Santana.
- 1995-2004, Madison Smartt Bell published a trilogy of novels inspired by the slave uprising and Haitian Revolution, with Toussaint Louverture a key figure. All Souls' Rising (1995) was shortlisted for both the PEN/Faulkner and National Book awards. Master of the Crossroads (2000) and The Stone That the Builder Refused (2004) completed the trilogy.
- Bell also published Freedom's Gate: A Brief Life of Toussaint L'Ouverture (2007)
- Actor Danny Glover, as of June 2007, has planned to direct a film about Toussaint.
Lòt referans[edite | modifye sous]
- Madison Smartt Bell. "Toussaint Louverture: A Biography" (New York: Pantheon, 2007).
- David Brion Davis. "He changed the New World" Review of M.S. Bell's "Toussaint Louverture: A Biography", The New York Review of Books, May 31, 2007, pp. 54-58.
- Laurent Dubois and John D. Garrigus. Slave Revolution in the Caribbean, 1789-1804: A Brief History with Documents (2006)
- Junius P. Rodriguez, ed. Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2006.
- Graham Gendall Norton - Toussaint Louverture, in History Today, April 2003.
- Arthur L. Stinchcombe. Sugar Island Slavery in the Age of Enlightenment: The Political Economy of the Caribbean World (1995).
- Ian Thomson. 'Bonjour Blanc: A Journey Through Haiti' (London, 1992). A colourful, picaresque, historically- and politically-engaged travelogue; regular asides on Louverture's career.
- Martin Ros - The Night of Fire: The Black Napoleon and the Battle for Haiti (1991).
- DuPuy, Alex. Haiti in the World Economy: Class, Race, and Underdevelopment since 1700 (1989).
- Alfred N. Hunt. Haiti's Influence on Antebellum America: Slumbering Volcano in the Caribbean (1988).
- Aimé Cesaire - Toussaint Louverture (Paris, 1981). Written by a prominent French thinker, this book is well written, well argued, and well researched.
- Robert Heinl and Nancy Heinl - Written in Blood: The story of the Haitian people, 1492-1971 (1978). A bit awkward, but studded with quotations from original sources.
- Thomas Ott - The Haitian Revolution: 1789-1804 (1973). Brief, but well-researched.
- George F. Tyson, ed. - Great Lives Considered: Toussaint L'Ouverture (1973). A compilation, includes some of Toussaint's writings.
- Ralph Korngold - Citizen Toussaint (1944, reissued 1979).
- J. R. Beard - The Life of Toussaint L'Ouverture: The Negro Patriot of Hayti (1853). Still in print. A pro-Toussaint history written by an Englishman. ISBN 1-58742-010-4
- J. R. Beard - Toussaint L'Ouverture: A Biography and Autobiography (1863). Out of print, but published online. Consists of the earlier "Life", supplemented by an autobiography of Toussaint written by himself.
- Victor Schoelcher - Vie de Toussaint-Louverture (1889). A sympathetic biography by a French abolitionist, with good scholarship (for the time), and generous quotation from original sources, but entertaining and readable nonetheless. Important as a source for many other biographers (e.g. C.L.R. James).
- F. J. Pamphile de Lacroix - La révolution d'Haïti (1819, reprinted 1995). Memoirs of one of the French generals involved in fighting Toussaint. Surprisingly, he esteemed his rival and wrote a long, well-documented, and generally highly regarded history of the conflict.
- Toussaint L'Ouverture - The Haitian Revolution (New York: Verso, 2008). A collection of L'Ouverture's writings and speeches, with an introduction by Jean-Bertrand Aristide. ISBN 1-84467-261-1
Lyen pou gade[edite | modifye sous]
- Toussaint L'Ouverture: A Biography and Autobiography by J. R. Beard, 1863
- A section of Bob Corbett's on-line course on the history of Haïti that deals with Toussaint's rise to power.
- The Louverture Project
- Toussaint Louverture
- Memoir of Toussaint Louverture, Written by Himself